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两维度教你区分三大从句

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zhaocongcong

2018年09月18日

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  提起从句来,相信很多同学一定是一头雾水,很少有人能够清楚地把它们区分开来。作为母语非英语的我们来讲,把这三大从句区分开来,是十分有必要的。因为我们不仅在进行写作时,需要经常地用到宾语从句,定语从句和状语从句这三种提分复杂句,而且在阅读的时候,我们也经常遇到那种令人晕眩的长难句,化解长难句的一个重要方式就是迅速找到从句类型,把它们秒变回主句中的一个句子成分。因此,练就一双火眼金睛,把它们瞬间区分开来,是我们征服英语的一种看家本领。下面我们来看看怎样从两个维度来区分这三大妖魔从句。

  第一个维度:与主句的粘合度

  各种从句,与主句的密切程度叫做粘合度;一般来说,粘合度最高的是名词从句,它们直接在主句里充当成分,是一种你中有我的关系,如:

  Whether he will be here is unknown. 从句充当主语,即主语从句;

  I believe that he did not lie. 从句充当宾语,即宾语从句;

  The truth is that we never sent the letter to him. 从句充当表语,表语从句;

  He told us the news that Hawking passed away. 从句充当同位语,同位语从句;

  与主句的粘合度稍微淡一点的,是定语从句;限制性定语从句还镶嵌在主句中,如:

  The girl who came back from USA is our monitor.

  I lost the phone which my father bought back from Europe for me last month.

  虽然定语从句修饰的名词在主句中所处的成分不同,但毕竟都还嵌套在一个句子里。但是,比起名词从句直接充当主句成分来说,还是不够纯粹,粘合度嘛,自然就要低一些啦。这就是限制性的定语从句。

  而非限制性定语从句,粘合度就更低啦,跟主句有一个逗号的距离,基本上跟主句是渐行渐远的了,如,

  He never told us the truth, which made the whole case complicated.

  We have to open the window, as everybody need fresh air in.

  Peter drives fast, which is dangerous.

  其实,从句子的意义上来看,非限制性定语从句,已经是一种修饰句子的状语从句啦。

  与主句的粘合度最低的是状语从句,不论与主句之间有没有个逗号隔开,其意义都是独立的两个句子,虽然对前一个句子有修饰的作用:

  When I came back he was sleeping.

  He never goes to school, because his mother teaches him everything at home.

  If you do not put down the gun, I will kill her.

  这样,我们就总结出来,粘合度最高的是名词从句,中间的是定语从句,而最低的就是状语从句。你会了吗?

  第二个维度:各从句的样子维度,也就是各种从句的构成

  我们先来看名词从句,名词从句分四种,主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句;每种从句都有三种构成方法:

  第一种 陈述句 用一个固定的引导词 that, 万万不能省略!

  That he loves iPhone is a truth.

  I believe that he loves iPhone.

  The truth is that he loves iPhone.

  His father gave him a gift, an iPhone.

  第二种 一般疑问句 在两个之中选一个来做从句的引导词,if / whether

  Whether he loves iPhone is unknown.

  I don’t know if he loves iPhone.

  The problem is if he loves iPhone.

  They asked us a question, if he loves iPhone?

  第三种 特殊疑问句 用特殊疑问句中自带的疑问词作引导词

  What he likes is unknown.

  I don’t know where he is from.

  The problem is when we will come back.

  They asked us a question, how we can get there?

  名词从句很庞大,不仅种类有四种之多,而且除了陈述句,还可以用一般疑问句和特殊疑问句来充当;其它剩下两类从句定语从句和状语从句就没有这么多花样,它们分别只有一种从句,而且只能用陈述句来充当;

  定语从句 一定有一个先行词,而且只可以用陈述句来充当;

  The girl who speaks fluent English is my elder sister.

  He lost the iPhone which his father bought back from USA for him.

  状语从句 标杆就是各种特征鲜明的引导词,也只能用陈述句来充当;

  Although he was young, he knew many secrets.

  We have to cancel the meeting, because it rained cats and dogs.

  He worked hard so that he would attend TOEFL test at the end of this year.

  从与主句的粘合度与长相两个维度,你会区分三大从句了吗?


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