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托福写作语法扣分是大问题?常见易错语法问题实例精讲

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zhaocongcong

2019年12月04日

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  托福写作中因为语法错误导致的扣分问题一直是中国考生的重灾区。很多同学缺乏对写作语法的认识,常会写出一些存在明显语法结构问题的句式并丢失这方面的得分。托福写作中考生怎样避免语法结构错误导致的扣分?下面小编就给出一些对错实例对比,帮助大家了解其中技巧。

  托福写作避免语法结构错误扣分实例分析

  选择合适的语法结构可以使句子意思的表达更为精确和简练。虽然语法的多样性也很重要,但选择最恰当的语法结构仍然是更为重要的考虑因素。以下原则是在考虑选择何种语法结构时可以参考的原则:

  1. 一个句子的主语和谓语动词应该能够反映句子中的最重要的意思。例如:

  The situation that resulted in my grandfather's not being able to study engineering was that his father needed help on the farm.

  从意思上来分析,上面这句话需要表达的重要的概念是“grandfather's not being able to study”,而在表达这个概念时,原句用的主语是situation,谓语动词是was,不能强调需要表达的重点概念,可以改为下面这句话:My grandfather couldn't study engineering because his father needed help on the farm.

  2. 避免频繁使用“there be”结构,例如下面的句子:

  There were 25 cows on the farm that my grandfather had to milk every day. It was hard work for my grandfather.

  可以改为:My grandfather worked hard. He had to milk 25 cows on the farm every day.

  更简洁的句式为:My grandfather worked hard milking 25 cows daily.

  3. 把从句改为短语或单词。例如:

  Dairy cows were raised on the farm,which was located100 kilometers from the nearest university and was in an area that was remote.

  简介的表达方式为:The dairy farm was located in a remote area, 100 kilometers tothe nearest university.

  4. 仅在需要强调宾语而不是主语的时候,才使用被动语态。例如:

  In the fall, not only did the cows have to be milked, but also the hay was mowed and stacked by my grandfather's family.

  本句不够简洁的原因是本句的重心应该是“忙碌的家庭-my grandfather's family”,而使用了被动语态后,仿佛重心变成了cows和hay。下面的表达方式是主动语态,相对来说更简洁一些:In the fall, my grandfather's family not only milked the cow but also mowed and stacked the hay.

  5. 用更为精确的一个动词来代替动词短语,例如下面这句话:

  My grandfather didn't have time to stand around doing nothing with his school friends.

  Stand around doing nothing其实可以用一个动词来表达,即loiter:My grandfather didn't have time to loiter with his school friends.

  6. 有时两句话的信息经过组合完全可以用一句话来简练地表达,例如:

  Profits from the farm were not large. Sometimes they were too small to meet the expenses of running a farm. They were not sufficient to pay for a university degree.

  两句话的信息可以合并为下面这句更为简洁的句子:Profits from the farm were sometimes too small to meet operational expenses, let alone pay for a university degree.

  通过以上这些例子,相信大家也能够看出托福写作语法结构扣分的常见情况了,掌握了正确的语法结构使用方法,相信大家也可以写出更好的文章拿到高分。


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